(
       )
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
      
  
  
      
  
  
      
      
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   -
  
  
  
  
  
  
      
  

 
 
 


31
.
. -
, -

-
.
,-
,,, -
, .,



.
-
,
-
.

, - ,
. -

-
.,
, -
,
3 - 5
, , -



Stipa , Stipa
capillata, "-
".

-
-
.

,


-


.

-
- ,

.. -

, -

- -

, 40-60


,
-


,
.




,
. ,,:
1. -

,
.
2.


.
3.
-


, .

:



. .


,

, .
:


-

֠
,
.


(2.02.1994), ...-
(16.02.1995), -
", ,"
. (26.09.1995). 1.
.
1.1
-
.


-
.

,
..
(1964) .. (1984).  
,
(,
1983;, 1985, 1986)

" " -
,. -

,


-
,
-
.

-

,, -


-
, ,






-
.


.. (1964) ,..(1969, 1984, 1993
.);.. 1952, 1969 ,1990).  
, -
,
,

-
,
,-
,
,-
,
,
.
-
: , -
, . -

, -
,
-
.
.
, -

-
(,-
,1980;,,1983;
,1984; ,1986;
, ,1992;
,,1994; ,,
1994;).

-
-
, ,,
-
.

- -

.
-



( ,
--,1952; ,1986;
,,1988;,,1988;).
-

-



..(,1979,1983;-
,,1981,1984;
.1983;,1990;)
..
(,1977,1988

;,1972;,,1977;,1978;
1982,1992; .1985; ,
,1986;,
1986;,,1992).


-

(Scholz
1975,Hodgkinson. 1991,Ger-
rish. 1991, Dabaan. et al.1991, Bellon. 1991,
Balent ., Smith.
1991, Yonghong. 1991, Moles. 1992).
1.2. .

-




, -
. ,
,..

,
, .
-

(,1987), (Bazzaz
1968,1975;Nicholson,onk 1974; Hayashi 1977; Keever 1983;Leps 1987).

(Succession in Abandoned fields,1990). - ( Leps,1990; Prach,
1990;Osbornova,1990;Osbornova,Prach,1990)
-
. ,
,

.  
, .

,
,..


.
(Symonides,1986).
,
,
,
,
, (
,1969;1984;1988; ,1965; .1977 ; , 1979;
, 1984; , . 1986;"
..." 1987, , , 1988; , , 1986; "
...1994).
,

,
, .

, ..,
(
),
, ,
.
1.3. .

-
,
(, 1985).
-
,
- ,
. ,
, ,
(,
, , ..)


- -
.
(,1985;,1995),


. .
.-
, ,
-

- ,
..
.
.  

(Cnnel,Slatyer,1977).

1. -

.,

(, , ,,,,).
2.
-

,
.

,
(
, , ).
3.
.  
(
),
S (Grime,
1979). , ,

,. .
, ,
( ..,1983)
4. -
-
.
,

, .

(,

,
,
,


) . .
.. (1989).

,



, (,
, )


,
( ),
(
, "" )
,

, ,
. , ""
.


, , ,

(Picett et al.1987).
.
(,1964;,1965; ...,1987).

(1989) : 1.

(R-)

.

, () ,
, -.
- ;
(, )
.
2.
.
. -
.
.
.
3.
, , , .

, .

,
, -
. ,,()
,
2-3

, . ,

,

.
,, ,

,..

,
. -
, .

.(gler,1954), -


. , .,
, -
. -
.
2.
.

,
.

..
.. (1941) ,


.

.. (1966 ), .. . (" -
...",1964;)..
...(1975).;.. (1980);.. (1992).
-

(1980) --
- - -
.
..
(1994) -

-
.
2.1. .

.
,
, ,
,

. ,

(,1954).
. 289-425 .
425 . 289 .
(,,1975). ՠ 30 (1959-1989
..) 315,0 .
,
.
-
( 10 C)

. .
90-110
130 .
10 120135 ,
(.) (.) 1800-2000,
(.-) (.)-2200-2300



.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.

堠 -

155-170 .
- 30-40 .,
. 45-46 .,
18 .
1 2
.
,
(1990
1992,1993,1994 ..)
(1991).
.

1.

() -

( )
..
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 .

17,1 19,9 38,6 12,4 12,3 16,0
8,5 6,5 14,4 10,0 10,3 20,0 򠠠 36,1 10,5
3,9 25,2 13,8 14,0
100,3 1,8 6,9 53,9 23,1 20,0 頠 52,5 12,0 30,0 4,3 55,2 30,0 43,0 28,9 48,1 83,2 43,1 44,0 62,2 46,2 85,6 65,9 55,1 50,0 򠠠
123,4 29,7 40,5 41,3 66,6 40,0 20,8 15,8 36,3 52,4
3,8 26,0

28,4 10,5 45,4 45,8 4,7 29,0

25,0 13,2 28,9 38,1 25,7 15,0

16,9 28,4 10,0 18,0 32,9 20,0
- 䠠

䠠 535,1 223,4 388,6 464,5
346,6 324
- 䠠

. 281,1 116,8 204,2 194,7
220 164


2. -
.
/ /
1990
1991 1992 1993
1994 -

t
-14,6 -12,4 -11,3 -9,8 -13,6 -12,3
-10,6 -14,7 -11,8 -14,6 -19,1 -14,1
򠠠 -2,6 -7,7 -7,0 -8,7 -9,9 -7,1

3,6 7,7 4,0 0,9 4,7
4,1
頠 11,2 14,4 10,1 11,0 11,2 11,5
17,4 19,4 14,8 16,4 16,3 16,9
17,4 18,9 15,7 18,1 15,0 17,0
򠠠 14,7 14,8 13,6 16,4 14,7 14,8

9,4 11,0 11,0 6,0 11,8
9,8

1,3 7,3 1,4 2,3 5,1
3,4
-5,6 -5,1 -5,1 -13,6 -5,9 -7,0
-9,2 -13,7 -12,3 -12,9 -9,9 -11,6
- +2,7 +4,5 +1,9 +0,9 +1,7 +2,1

t
---
.
-
-
450 . -
160-170 .
-
. ,
-
,
. -
-
0,3-0,6 . 1 -
. 550-600 ., -
300-360 ...


, 50-60 .
, -
33,6%, -
-23,4 %. -
- ,
- -
, (,1948).
..
(1994) ,
--
- -
,
,,

.
.
-
,
.
-
- . -
- , --
.

(
) -
-

. ࠠ

1,1-1,25 /,
3500-4500 /,-

7-9%, -300-500 /,
.
,
- -

.
, -

-
,
5,6-6,5%, -2,5-3,1 , -
17,2-20,0 . 100 .,
6,0-6,4.-

:
-4,4-
5,8, -1,4-2,6 , 9,5-
-11,3 . 100 ..

31,2 32,0
͠
5,2.
2.3



..
-

. -

,-

- (Braun-
Blanqut,
1964;Wsthoff, Maarel,1978;, 1985,1989;,
1995).
.


(,
1986), ( .,
1988;Mirkin t al.,1989 ), (
.,1985),
.

..,
. -


.
-

( .,1986)
2.3.1.

-

.. (1980) .


-

1980
.(,1980).

-
3 ,

-
( Stipa Zalesskii+Lecanthemum vulgare)

(
Stipa

S.zalesskii+S.lessingiana). -
-
-
,


-
.

-

(Schubert et al.,1981).

-
,

.

-

- , -

-
(
).

-
-
1986

( 1986,1987,1988,1989 ,,,1990 ,,1991).-

:

Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl.et R.Tx..
Klika et Hadac 1944
(Mucina,1993), -



-
.

Festucetalia valesia-
cae Br.Bl.et
Tx. 1943



Helictotricho-Stipetalia Tomn
1969(Toman,1969).
-
Festucion valesiacae Klika,1931,


.
.
Stipa pennata,St.pulcherrima,St.dasyphylla,St.tirsa, Helictotrichon
schellianum,Koeleria delavignei,Bromopsis inermis,Festuca pratensis,Phleum
phleoides,Poa ngustifolia,Poa pratensis, Calmagrostis
epigeios,C.arundinacea,Elytrigia
repens.
(Filipendula vulgaris,Galium
tinctorium,Sanguisorba offiinalis,Seseli libanotis,Anemone sylvestris .).

,
, .
Festucion valesiacae -

Calamgrostis epigeios,Dactylis glomerata, Helictotrichon schellianum .,
- .


.
,
. ,
, Festucion valesiacae

Chmaecythisus ruthenicus,Rosa cinnamomea,R.glabrifolia,Cerasus fruticosa .

. 6 .
Helictotricho-Stipetalia
--
-

.
Festucetalia,

. 3 .
Helictotricho-Stipion Toman 1969



. .
Stipa pennata,Stipa zalesskii,Stipa tirsa Helictotrichon desertorum,
Koeleria cristata,Poa
angustifolia,Bromopsis inermis, Poa
stepposa, Festuca valesiaca,F.pseudovina,F.rupicola,Stipa
capillata,S.lessingiana .


.
Helictotricho-Stipion Festucion
valesiacae .
Galio-Onosmion simplicissimae Saitov
1989.

.
,
, ,, .

-
(Artemisia frigida,Centaurea sibirica, Aster alpinus,Scorzonera austriaca
.).
,
.



Orostachion spinosae Saitov
1989.
,
Stipa
zaleeskii,St.capillata,St.lessingiana.

(Sedum hybridum,Tanacetum
millefolium,Onosma simplicissima,Dianthus acicularis) Festuca pseudovina Koeleria sclerophylla.
,
,

.

,

.

,
.

.

(,
.),
.
(-),

ࠠ (-)
(- ).


( ).
( ),
.

.


.
. .
(Dabaan et al.,1991).
2.3.2.

(,,1972;, -
,1973;,1975;
.,1980;,1985; .1986) -
.
Polygonion Krasheninikovii,Kashapov,(1985)
Polygonum
Krasheninikovii,Achllea vulgaris,Trifolium medium,
Glietalia veri Mirk.et Num.1986(..oa
angustifolia, Filipendula vulgaris,Potentilla
argentea, Galium verum). Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Festua pratensis,
Achillea millefolium,Leucanthemum vulgare,Vicia cracca, Lathyrus
pratensis,Phleum pratense,Trifolium pratense,Elytrigia repens,Bromopsis
inermis, Trifolio-Geranietea Sanguinei ( Orignetalia), Betonia officinalis, Orignum
vulgare, Hypericum perforatum.

..

:
1)Polgono Krascheninnikovii-Aegopodietum
pdagrariae,
2)Aconito excelsi-Aegopodietum
pdagrariae, 3)Centaureo
stenolepis-Polygonetum Krascheninniko
vii,
4)Trifolio
repentis-Alhimillietum vulgaris 5)Poligono
Krascheninnikovii-Alhimillietum vulga
ris,

- ,
, ...
2.3.3.


.
: (Betula
pendulla),
(B.pubescens), (Populua fremula) (Pinus
slvestris),
(Larix sibirica), (Alnus glutinosa),
(A. incana), (Salix alba), (Populus nigra).
, .

,

(B.pendula) (P.tremula)
,
- LathyroQuercion Solometch t al.1989 Quercetalia
pubesntis Br.-Bl.(1931) Quero-Fagetea Br.-Bl.et Vlieger in Vlieger
1937. Calamagroetio-Laricetum
Schubert et al. 1979 ex. Mirkin et Solomtch 1990.


⠠ 򠠠 Calamagrostis
arundinacea,Brachypodium
pinnatum,Rubus
saxatilis,Seseli libanotis
.(,-,1941;
1954;Schubert et al,1979; .,1988;1994).

-

,

(lnus incana) (Padus avium). lnetum incanae Ludi 1921 Humulo-Padetum Solometch in haziakhmetov et
al.1989 Alno-Padion Knapp 1942 Fagetalia Paul.1928 Quereo-Fagetea.
-
.
, .
Urtica dioica,Humulus lupulus, Filipendula ulmaria, Aegopodium podagraria, Geum
urbanum,Milium effusum .
,

-
Salix alba,Populus nigra,Salix
viminalis,Salix triandra. Salici-Populetum Meijer-Drees 1936 Salicet
triandro-viminalis Tx.1931 Lohm.1952 Salicetea purpureae Moor 1958.
-

Alnetea glutinosae Br.-Bl.et Tx.1943.

Betula pubescens Alnus
glutinosa
Carici cespitosae-Betuletum
pubescentis Solometch et Grigorjev 1992
Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae
Koch 1926 Alnion glutinosae Muller et Gors 1958
Alnetalia glutinosae Tx. 1937.
-Carex cespitosa,C.juncella .

,
. ,,-
.
2.3.4. .



. ..
.(1985)
Seclietetea Chenopodietea Br.-Bl.1951.em Lohm.,J.et
R.Tx.ex Matuszkiewiz.1962.
, Convolvulus arvensis,Centaurea
cyanus,Avena fatua,Fallopia convolvulus,Silene noctiflora,Galeopsis ladanum,Neslia
paniculata,Buglossoides arvensis,Vicia sativa,Sonchus arvensis,Chenopodium
album,Setaria viridis,Polygonum lapathifolium,Amaranthus retroflexus,Thlaspi
arvense,Erodium icutatium,Cirsium setosum,Lappula squarrosa,Euphorbia woldsteinii.


, ..-
(
.1985) ,

.:Sinapis arvensis, Panicum
miliaceum,Chenopolium album,Vicia sativa,Neslia paniculata,Chenopodium
aristatum, Lcopsis arvensis,Thlasi arvensis,Sonchus arvensis,Avena
fatua,Chaerophyllum prescottii, Dracocephalum thymiflorum,Taraxacum
officinale,Berteroa incana.
2.3.5.


Bidentetea tripartiti Tx.,Lohm.et Prsg.in Tx.
1950,Chenopdietea Br.-Bl.1951.em
Lohm.,J.et R.Tx.ex Matuszkiewiz 1962,Artemisietea
vulgaris,Tx.,Lohm.,et Prsg.et Tx.in Tx.
1950, Agropyretea repentis Tx.,Lohm.,et
Prsg.et Tx.in Tx.1950. Plantaginetea majoris Ish.in Mirk. et
al.1986.,Poligono-Artemisietea
austriacae
Mirk.,Sach.Solm.in Mirk.et
al.1986. - Artemisietea
Poligono-Artemisietea -

,
.
Artemisietea vulgaris ..:Artemisia absinthium,A.vul-
garis,Achilea
millefolium,Arctium tomentosum,Carduus
acanthoides,C.crispus,irsium vulgare, Leonurus quinquelobatus, Urtica dioica.
-,
.
, ,
. Chenopdietea

頠 ⠠
ࠠ Agropyretea
repents.
Onopordetalia acanthii Br.-Bl.et
Tx.1943 ..:Achil-
lea
nobilis,Artemisia absinthium,Axyris
amaranthoides,Berteroa incana, Cirsium
vulgare,Carduus acanthoides,C.nutans,Cichorium intybus,Cynoglossum
officinale,Echium vulgare, Euphorbia
waldsteinii,Nonea pulla, Pastinaca sylvestris, Potentilla impolita,
Verbascum lychnitis.

.
, . ,
, ..
Artemisietlia vulgaris Lohm.in
Tx.1947.
..:Arctum
tomentosum,A.lppa,A.minus,Artemisia vulgaris, arduus crispus,Conium maculatum,Dactylis
glomerata,Lamium album
album,Leonurus quinquelobatus,Geum urbanum,Melandrium album, Nepeta cataria,Urtica dioica.

-,
,..
.
Onopordetalia
acanthii, ,
,
, , .


,
. FstucoBrometea.
Polygono-Artemisietea austriacae Mirk.,Sach.et Solm.in
Mirk.et
al.1986.
..:Agropyron cristatum,Alyssum
turkestanicum,Artemisia austriaca,Atriplex tatarica,Bassia
sedoides,Ceratocarpus arenarius Eremopyrum triticeum,Festuca
valesiaca,Lepidium ruderale,Polygonum
aviculare.
,
.
, , ,
..
3.

3.1.
.

,堠
-
,렠 - ,
Galio veri - Stipetum tirsa Saitov
1989 Festucion valesiaae, Festucetalia valesiacae

, .
, - 80 100
..

3 - .
,
(,,) 
. 80-90%.

3.

, -

- .

1 2
:
Stipa
zalesskii 1 - 3
S.pennata 1 - 3
S.tirsa 3 - 1
S.capillata 1 - 3
Phleum
phleoides + - 1
Calamagrostis
epigeios + - 1
Helictotrichon
schellianum + - 1
Koeleria
sclerophylla + - 1
Dactylis
glomerata +
Poa
angustifolia + - 1
Festuca
pratensis + - 1
F.rupicola + - 1
F.valesiaca + - 1
Bromopsis
inermis 1 - 3
Elytrigia
lolioides 1 - 3
Agropyron
pctinatum 1 - 2
: +
- 1
arex
pediformis
:
Genista
tinctoria +
Trifolium
montanum 1 - 3
T.lupinaster R+
Medicago
falcata 1 - 3
Onobrychis
sibirica + - 1
Vicia
cracca +
Lathyrus
litvinovii +
:
Polygala
hybrida +
Viola
ambigua +
Seseli
libanotis +
Silaum
silaus +
Dracocephalum
thymiflorum + - 1
Salvia
stepposa +
Thymus
marschallianus + - 1
Veronica
spicata +
Primula
macrocalyx + - 1
Centaurea
scabiosa + - 1
Sanguisorba
officinalis 1 - 3
Hieracium
echioides + - 1
Phlomis
tuberosa + - 1
Gypsophila
altisima + - 1
Inula hirta 1 - 3
Galium verum 1 - 3
Galium
boreale 1 - 3
Veronica
pniculata + - 1
Melampyrum
cristatum + - 1
Plantago
urvillei + - 1
Hypochoeris
maculata + - 1
Scorzonera
purpurea +
Adonis
vernalis +
Centaurea
ruthenica + - 1
Pyrethrum
corymbosum +
Artemisia
latifolia +
Filipendula
vulgaris +
Scorzonera
stricta +
Thalictrum
simplex +
Thalictrum
minus +
Artemisia
armeniaca +
Pedicularis
uralensis +
Potentilla
cinerea +
Galium
octonarium +
Aster alpinus +
Campanula
patula + - 2
Fragaria
viridis + - 1
Poligonum
alpinum + - 1
Valeriana
officinalis +
Ranunculus
polyanthemos +
Erysimum
hierecifolium +
Lappula
squarrosa +
Achillea
millefolium +
Achillea
nobilis +
Artemisia
sericea +
Silene
baschkirorum +
Silene nutans +
Galatella
biflora +
Tragopogon
dubius +
Tragpogon
orientalis +
Taraxacum
officinale +
Asparagus
officinalis +
Arenaria
longifolia +
Potentilla
erecta +
Rumex thyrsiflorus +
3.2. .


, ,, .,

(Howell,Stearn,1993).


( Donald,1993).

젠 .
(1983,1986,1991,1994),
堠 (
), .. - - ,


1:5 -
1:10.
. ,
.
-
-, ,
80 %
.
(, 1993)
(,1993) .
1989
.
,
,
,
3-5
,
(Festuca
rupicola,Festuca valesiaca)
(Artemisia austriaca).
 




-
, -

.
4 :
1. -
(1 ) 1 *
5;(1/5)
2. -
( ) 1 * 10;(1/10)
3. -
(1 16 ) 1
* 5;(2/5)
4. -
( ) 1 * 10;(2/10)

10 * 20 .., - .




1 ..

: 1.


( , ,
).
2.
( .,1989).
3.

.
" " -,
(Secalietea ,
Chenopodietea , Molinio-Arrhenatheretea,Festuco-Brometea, Artemisietea vulgaris) ,

(

) , ,,
.Artemisietalia vulgaris Onopordetalia acanthii,
,,
. 4.


.
,,
" "
1
.
(=2*100/+)
.1989,; .

4. .

4.1. .
,
-
,
,
: ,
.
,

.
.
4 , 5-
.
,

, .
, -

,
,.
" "
55
90% .
7,45 38,85 /,
- 49,2 87,5, - 13,3 55,7.
, ,
" " " ",


.
""
,
.
,

1,7 5,2 /,
11 5,
/
/.

4.


(- ,- ,- )
N 蠠
B C AB BC AC
1. 頠 0,003* 0,03* 0,90 0,0006
0,002* 0,05*
*
2. - 0,03 0,01* 0,8 0 0,01* 0

3. - 0 0,08 0,22 0,02* 0 0,07*

4. - 0 0,11 0,56 0,02* 0,01* 0,09*

5. - 0,02* 0 0,55 0 0,03* 0,05*
-

6. - 0,07* 0,12 0,7 0 0,1 0,11

7. ⠠ 0,04* 0,06* 0,67 0,001*
0,01* 0,07*

8. ⠠ 0,04* 0,07 0,6 0,05*
0,03* 0,06*

9. ⠠ 0,10 0,01* 0,57 0 0,12 0

:*
- ..0,95

5 .

N ꠠ

()
1
2 1 2 1 2
3 4
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9
10
1.
/ࠠ 20 21,7 18,2
23,4 7,4 6,6 30,5
38,8
2. .
堠 64,1
70,5 65,5 69,0 49,2 56,8 75,8 87,5
3. .-
⠠ 10,1
11,2 8,5 12,8 11,0 5,9 10,0
15,8
4. .-

4,8 4,9 3,1 6,7 0 2,0 7,7
9,8
5. .-

48,9 53,4 51,7 50,5 33,9 48,8 58,2 63,7
6. -
⠠ 26,6
37,8 29,9 34,5 13,3 18,2 41,8 55,7
7. - ⠠

3,9 5,4 3,7 5,6 1,2
2,6 6,5 8,5
8. - ⠠

1,5 2,4 1,4 2,5 0 0,9 3,3
3,7
9. - ⠠
19,2
29,9 22,7 26,4 12,2 13,4 32,0 40,7
4.2.

4.2.1
1 * 5.
6
. , -
(1990) 13 ,
蠠 -
Seclitea Chenopodietea (Atriplex
nitens,Sonchus asper,Cirsium setosum,Avena
fatua,Convolvulus arvense,Galeopsis bifida,Capsella
bursa-pastoris,Berteroa incana,Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria perforata,Lappula
squarrosa ), .. ,
(Succession in abandoned...,1990) ( ...,1987).
, -
Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Achillea millefolium,Taraxacum officinale)
.
7,2 /.
N
6.

(
1 * 5)
-

.

90 91 92 93
94
Capsella
bursa-pastoris On
1 0 0 0 0
Berteroa
incana On
1 1 0 0 0
Galeopsis
bifida Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Atriplex
nitens Sec-ch
2 1 1 0 0
Sonchus
asper Sec-ch
1 1 1 0 0
Cirsium
setosum Sec-ch
1 1 1 0 0
Convolvulus
arvensis Sec-ch
1 1 1 0 0
Artemisia
vulgaris Art
1 1 1 0 0
Avena
fatua Sec-ch
2 1 1 1 0
Lappula
squarrosa Art
1 1 1 1 0
Matricaria
perforata Art
1 1 1 1 1
Achillea
millefolium MA
1 1 1 1 1
Taraxacum
officinale MA
1 1 1 1 1
Thymus
marschallianus FB
0 1 1 1 1
Potentilla
impolita MA
0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
rupicola FB
0 1 1 1 1
Veronica
spicata FB
0 1 1 1 1
Achillea
nobilis FB
0 1 1 1 1
Dianthus
versicolor FB
0 1 1 1 1
Trifolium
montanum FB
0 1 1 1 1
Medicago
romanica FB
0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
pseudovina FB
0 1 1 1 1
Inula
britannica MA
0 1 1 1 1
Verbascum
phoniceum On
0 1 1 1 1
Echinops
ritro On
0 1 1 1 1
Lepidium
ruderale On
0 0 1 1 1
Eryngium
planum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Sisymbrium
officinale On
0 0 1 1 1
Pimpinella
saxifrage FB
0 0 1 1 1
Inula
hirta FB
0 0 1 1 1
Galium
verum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Gelium
boreale MA
0 0 1 1 1
Veronica
paniculata MA
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
rubra MA
0 0 1 1 1
Rumex
thyrsiflorus FB
0 0 1 1 1
Asparagus
officinalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Trgopogon
orientalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Poa
angustifolia FB
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
valesiaca FB
0 0 1 1 1
Lactuca
tatarica On
0
0 1 1 1
Pastinaca
sativa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Fragaria
viridis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Polygonum
alpinum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Primula
macroalyx FB
0 0 1 1 1
Artemisia
sericea FB
0 0 1 1 1
Onobrychis
sibirica FB
0 0 1 1 1
Genista
tinctria MA
0 0 1 1 1
Medicago
falcata FB
0 0 1 1 1
Bromopsis
erecta FB
0 0 1 1 1
Carex
pediformis FB
0 0 0 1 1
Centaurea
scabiosa FB
0 0 0 1 1
Melampyrum
cristatum MA
0 0 0 1 1
Plantago urvillei FB
0 0 0 1 1
Phlomis
tuberosa FB
0 0 0 1 1
Scorzonera
purpurea FB
0 0 0 1 1
Adonis
vernalis FB
0 0 0 1 1
Vicia
cracca MA
0 0 0 1 1
Artemisia
latifolia MA
0 0 0 1 1
Silaum
silaus MA
0 0 0 1 1
Pedicularis
uralensis MA
0 0 0 1 1
Aster
alpinus FB
0 0 0 1 1
Dracocephalum
thymifl- FB
0 0 0 1 1
rum
Hieracium
echioides FB
0 0 0 1 1
Campanula
patula MA
0 0 0 1 1
Ranunculus
polyanthemos MA
0 0 0 1 1

⠠ ---
13 24 46 57
55

6 - 9. Sec-Ch - Secalitea+Chenopodietea,
Art - Artemisietalia vulgaris, On - Onopordetalia acanthii, MA - Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, FB - Festuco-Brometea.
1991
.

-
(Capsella bursa
-pastoris),
12 .

Molinio-Arrhe-
natheretea (Achillea millefolium,Potentilla
impolita),
-Festuco-Brometea,(Thymus
marschallianus,Festuca pseu-
dovina, Festuca rupicola, Veronica spicata
,Achillea nobilis ,
Dianthus versicolor,Trifolium
montanum,Medicago romnica).-



-

Artemisietalia ( Artemisia vulgaris,
Matricaria
perforata,Lappula squarrosa) Onopordetalia (Berte-
roa incana,Verbascum phoeniceum,Echinops
ritro).
1991
. -
24, -
6,0. 1992
-
(Berteroa incana,Galeopsis bifida),
-

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
(Festuca rubra,Glium boreale,Veronica
paniculata,Genista tinc-
toria ) Festuco-brometea,(Bromopsis
erecta,Festuca valesiaca,
Poa
angustifolia,Eryngium planum, Pimpinella saxifrage, Inula
hirta,Galium verum, Rumex thyrsiflorus,
Asparagus officinalis,
Pstinaca sativa,Fragaria viridis,Poligonum
lpinum,Onobrychis
sibirica,Medicago falcata,Tragopogon
orientalis ,Primula macro-
calyx, Artemisia sericea).

-
46,




28,5 /.
1993 .


- (Atriplex nitens,
Sonchus asper
,Convolvulus arvensis ,Cirsium setosum ,Artemisia
,
-
vulgaris),
57 .

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Vica
cracca,Artemisia latifolia,Achillea
millefolium,Taraxacum offi-
cinale,Potentilla impolita, Genista
tinctoria,Inula britannica,
Galium boreale,Veronica paniculata,Festuca
rubra,Silaum silaus,
Campanula patula,Ranunculus polyanthemos)

Festuco-Brometea (Centaurea
scabiosa,Plantago
urvillei,Phlomis tuberosa,Scorzonera
purpurea, Adonis vernalis,
Aster alpinus,Hieracium echioides,Carex
pediformis, Dracocepha-
lum
thymiflorum). -
30,0 /.
1994 ,
-
.
-
.
Festuco-Brometea.

, .
55, 31,3 /.

-
,
-
()
-
.
N 1 -

. -
,

,


Onopordetalia achanthii

.
.1



1*5 : , . N 6.
4.2.2
1 * 5.
N 7

-
.
12
,
-

- Secalitea Chenopdietea(Avena fatua,Atri-
plex
nitens,Sonchus asper,Cirsium setosum,Convolvulus arvensis,
Galeopsis
bifida).
Onopordetalia
(Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa incana
),

Artemisietalia (Lappula squarrosa,
Artemisia vulgaris,
Matricaria perforata).
7



( - 1 * 5 )


. 90
91 92 93 94 Capsella
bursa-pastoris On 1
0 0 0 0
Berteroa
incana On 1
1 0 0 0
Galeopsis
bifida Sec-ch 1
1 0 0 0
Atriplex
nitens Sec-ch 2
1 0 0 0
Convolvulus
arvensis Sec-ch 1 1 0 0 0
Cirsium
setosum Sec-ch 1
1 0 0 0
Artemisia
vulgaris Art 1 1 1 0 0
Avena
fatua Sec-ch 2
1 1 1 0
Lappula
squarrosa Art 1 1 1 1 0
Matricria
perforata Art 1 1 1 1 1
Taraxacum
officinale MA 1 1 1 1 1
Achillea
millefolium MA 1 1 1 1 1
Thymus
marschallianus FB 0
1 1 1 1
Potentilla
impolita MA 0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
rupicola FB 0
1 1 1 1
Veronica
spicata FB 0 1 1 1 1
Achillea
nobilis FB 0 1 1 1 1
Dianthus
versicolor FB 0 1 1 1 1
Trifolium
montanum FB 0 1 1 1 1
Filipendula
vulgaris FB 0 1 1 1 1
Medicago
romanica FB 0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
pseudovina FB 0
1 1 1 1
Inula
britannica MA 0
1 1 1 1
Verbascum
phoeniceum On 0 1 1 1 1
Helictotrichon
schelli-
anum FB 0 0 1 1 1
Agropyron
pectinatum FB 0 0 1 1 1
Polygala
hybrida FB 0 0 1 1 1
Potentilla
erecta On 0 0 1 1 1
Echinops
ritro On 0 0 1 1 1
Lepidium
ruderale On 0 0 1 1 1
Bromopsis
erecta FB 0 0 1 1 1
Eryngium
planum FB 0 0 1 1 1
Sisymbrium
officinale On 0 0 1 1 1
Pimpinella
saxifragࠠ FB 0 0 1 1 1
Inula
hirta FB 0 0 1 1 1
Galium
verum FB 0 0 1 1 1
Glium
boreale MA 0 0 1 1 1
Veronica
paniculata MA 0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
rubra MA 0 0 1 1 1
Rumex
thyrsiflorus FB 0 0 1 1 1
Asparagus
officinalis FB 0 0 1 1 1
Traogopogon
orientalis FB 0 0 1 1 1
Poa
angustifolia FB 0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
valesiaca FB 0 0 1 1 1
Lactuca
tatarica On 0 0 1 1 1
Pastinaca
sativa FB 0 0 1 1 1
Fragaria
viridis FB 0 0 1 1 1
Polygonum
alpinum FB 0 0 1 1 1
Primula
macrocalyx FB 0 0 1 1 1
Artemisia
sericea FB 0 0 1 1 1
Onobrychis
sibirica FB 0 0 0 1 1
Genista
tinctria MA 0 0 0 1 1
Medicago
falcata FB 0 0 0 1 1
Bromopsis
inermis FB 0 0 0 1 1
Carex
pediformis FB 0 0 0 1 1
Centaurea
scabiosa FB 0 0 0 1 1
Melampyrum
cristatum 0 0 0 1 1
Plantago
urvilllei FB 0 0 0 1 1
Phlomis
tuberosa FB 0 0 0 1 1
Scorzonera
purpurea FB 0 0 0 1 1
Adonis
vernalis FB 0 0 0 1 1
Thalictrum
minus MA 0 0 0 1 1
Vica
cracca MA 0 0 0 1 1
Artemisia
latifolia MA 0 0 0 1 1
Silaum
silaus MA 0 0 0 1 1
Thalictrum
simplex MA 0 0 0 1 1
Artemisia
armeniaca FB 0 0 0 1 1
Pedicularis
uralensis MA 0 0 0 1 1
Aster
alpinus FB 0 0 0 1 1
Seseli
libanotis FB 0 0 0 1 1
Dracocephlum
thymifl- FB 0 0 0 1 1
rum
Hieracium
echioides FB 0 0 0 1 1
Stipa
zalesskii FB 0 0 0 0 1
Stipa
pennata FB 0 0 0 0 1
Stipa
tirsa FB 0 0 0 0 1
Scorzonera
stricta FB 0 0 0 0 1
Phleum
phleoides FB 0 0 0 0 1
Trifolium
lupinaster MA 0 0 0 0 1
Caragana
frutex FB 0 0 0 0 1
Astragalus
danicus FB 0 0 0 0 1
Campanula
patula MA 0 0 0 0 1
Ranunculus
polyanthemos MA 0 0 0 0 1

⠠ 12 23
44 66 73
:a
, .N 6
,

,

.
, -
.

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Achillea
millefolium,Taraxacum offici-
nale).
- 7,4 /.
1991 . -
23, -
6,0/.
.

- Capsella
bursa-pastoris , -
12 .
-
Molinio-Arrhenatheretea ( Potentilla
impolita, Inula britannica)
Festuco - Brometea
(Thymus marschallianus ,Dianthus versicolor,Trifolium montanum,
Medicago romanica,Filipendula
vulgaris,Festuca rupicola,Veroni-
ca spicata,Achillea nobilis,Festuca
pseudovina).




Artemisietalia vulgaris
(Artemisia vulgaris,
Matricaria perforata ,Lappula
squarrosa), Onopordetalia
acanthii(Verbascum phoeniceum).
1992

(Berteroa incana,Atriplex nitens,Convolvulus arevensis,Cirsium
setosum,Galeopsis bifida).

(Festuca rubra,Veronica
paniculata, Bro-
mopsis erecta,Festuca pratensis,Festuca
valesiaca, Poa angusti-
folia,Eryngium planum,Pimpinella saxifraga,
Inula hirta , Rumex
thyrsiflorus , Asparagus officinalis
,Pastinaca sativa,Medicago
falcata,Agropyron pectinatum,Helictotrichon
schellianum,Polyga-
la hybrida , Galium verum ,Galium
boreale,Tragopogon orientalis,
Fragaria viridis,Polygonum alpinum,Primula
macrocalyx , Artemi-
sia sericea).
-
44, -



28,6 /.
1993
. -


-
(Artemisia vulgaris).

66 . -

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea (Genista tinctoria,
Thalictrum minus,Vica cracca,Artemisia
latifolia,Silaum silaus,
Pedicularis uralensis,Thalictrum simplex,Melampyrum cristatum).
Festuco-brometea (Plan-
tago urvillei,Scorzonera purpurea,Adonis
vernalis,Aster alpinus
Dracocephalum thymiflorum,Hieracium
echioides,Fragaria viridis,
Poligonum alpinum,Achillea
nobilis,Onobrychis sibirica, Seseli
libanotis,Artemisia areniaca,Phlomis
tuberosa , Centaurea sca-
biosa,Carex pediformis,Bromopsis inermis,Medicado falcata).
46,5 /.
1994
.
Festuco-Brometea, -

-
: Stipa zalesskii,St.pennata,St.tirsa,
:Cara-
gana frutex,Astragalus danicus.
73,
43,4 /.

-
,
-
()
-
(.2).
.2


1 * 5.
: ,
.N 6
4.2.3
1 * 10.
N 8
.

. -
- (1990) -


13 .
-
Secalitea

Chenopdietea (Avena fatua,Atriplex nitens,Sonchus asper,Cir-
sium setosum,Convolvulus arvensis , Galeopsis
bifida), -
Artemisietalia vulgaris (
Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria
perforata) , Onopordetalia
acanthii(Capsella bursa-pas-
toris ,Berteroa incana).

8



( - 1 * 10 )
-

.
90 91 92
93 94 Capsella bursa-pastoris
On
1 1 0 0 0
Berteroa
incana On
1 1 0 0 0
Atriplex
nitens Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Sonchus
asper Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Convolvulus
arvensis Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Cirsium
setosum Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Artemisia
vulgaris Art
1 1 0 0 0
Avena
fatua Sec-ch
2 1 0 0 0
Lappula
squarrosa Art
1 1 0 0 0
Galeopsis
bifida Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Matricaria
perforata Art
1 1 1 1 0
Taraxacum
officinale MA
1 1 1 1 1
Achillea
millefolium MA
1 1 1 1 1
Thymus
marschallianus FB
0 1 1 1 1
Potentilla
impolita MA
0 1 1 1 1
Dianthus
versicolor FB
0 1 1 1 1
Trifolium
montanum FB
0 1 1 1 1
Filipendula
vulgaris FB
0 1 1 1 1
Medicago
romanica FB
0 1 1 1 1
Poa
angustifolia FB
0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
valesiaca FB
0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
rupicola FB
0 0 1 1 1
Veronica
spicata FB
0 0 1 1 1
Achillea
nobilis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
pseudovina FB
0 0 1 1 1
Inula
britannica MA
0 0 1 1 1
Verbascum
phoeniceum On
0 0 1 1 1
Helictotrichon
schelli-
anum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Agropyron
pectinatum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Polygala
hybrida FB
0 0 1 1 1
Potentilla
erecta On
0 0 1 1 1
Echinops
ritro On
0 0 1 1 1
Lepidium
ruderale On
0 0 1 1 1
Eryngium
planum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Sisymbrium
officinale On
0 0 1 1 1
Pimpinella
saxifragࠠ FB
0 0 1 1 1
Inula
hirta FB
0 0 1 1 1
Galium
verum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Galium
boreale MA
0 0 1 1 1
Veronica
paniculata MA
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
rubra MA
0 0 1 1 1
Rumex
thyrsiflorus FB
0 0 1 1 1
Asparagus
officinalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Lactuca
tatarica On
0 0 1 1 1
Pastinaca
sativa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Fragaria
viridis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Polygonum
alpinum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Primula
macroalyx FB
0 0 1 1 1
Onobrychis
sibirica FB
0 0 1 1 1
Genista
tinctria MA
0 0 1 1 1
Medicago
falcata FB
0 0 1 1 1
Bromopsis
erecta FB
0 0 1 1 1
Carex
pediformis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Centaurea
scabiosa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Melampyrum
cristatum MA
0 0 1 1 1
Plantago
urvillei FB
0 0 1 1 1
Phlomis
tuberosa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Scorzonera
purpurea FB
0 0 1 1 1
Adonis
vernalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Campanula
patula MA
0 0 1 1 1
Ranunculus
polyanthemos MA
0 0 1 1 1
Arenaria
longifolia MA
0 0 1 1 1
Vica
cracca MA
0 0 1 1 1
Elytrigia
lolioides FB
0 0 1 1 1
Phleum
phleoides FB
0 0 1 1 1
Artemisia
latifolia MA
0 0 1 1 1
Silaum
silaus MA
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
pratensis
0 0 1 1 1
Thalictrum
simplex MA
0 0 1 1 1
Artemisia
armeniaca FB
0 0 1 1 1
Pedicularis
uralensis MA
0 0 1 1 1
Aster
alpinus FB
0 0 1 1 1
Dracocephalum
thymiflo- FB
0 0 1 1 1
rum
Seseli
libanotis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Hieracium
echioides FB
0 0 1 1 1
Trgopogon
orientalis FB
0 0 0 1 1
Artemisia
sericea FB
0 0 0 1 1
S.pennata FB
0 0 0 1 1
Stipa
zalesskii FB
0 0 0 0 1
S.tirsa FB
0 0 0 0 1
Scorzonera
stricta FB
0 0 0 0 1
Euphorbia
semivillosa FB
0 0 0 0 1
Trifolium
lupinaster MA
0 0 0 0 1
Caragana
frutex FB
0 0 0 0 1
Astragalus
danicus FB
0 0 0 0 1
Onosma
simpliscissima FB
0 0 0 0 1


13 21 65
68 75 : , N
6.
,
. ,
- c .
Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Achillea
millefolium , Taraxacum officinale).
-
7,4 /.
1991 ,

.
- , 8 . Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(
Potentilla impolita), Festuco-Brometea(Thymus
marschallianus,Dianthus verversicolor, Poa angustifolia Trifolium montanum,
Medicago romanica,Festuca valesiaca,
Filipendula vulgaris).


Artemisietalia
vulgaris ( Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria perforata ,Loppula squarrosa).
1991
.
-
7,1 /.
1992 -

( Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa incana ,Atriplex nitens, Sonchus asper , Convolvulus arvensis,Cirsium
setosum,Artemisia vulgaris, Avena fatua , Lappula squarrosa,Galeopsis bifida).


Molinio-Arrenateretea ( Festuca rubra ,Inula britannica, Veronica
paniculata,Galium boreale ,Genista tinctoria,Vicia cracca , Artemisia
latifolia, Silaum silaus, Thalictrum
simplex , Festuca pratensis , Pedicularis uralensis , Campanula patula ,
Arenaria longifolia, Melampyrum
cristatum, Ranunculus
polyanthemos)
Festuco-Brometea(Bromopsis erecta,Pimpinella
saxifraga, Inula hirta,Rumex thyrsiflorus, Asparagus
officinalis,Pstinaca sativa ,Medicago
falcata, Festuca rupicola,Festuca pseudovina, gropyron pectinatum, Helictotrichon
schellianum, Veronica spicata,Eringium planum,Achillea nobilis,Galium
verum,Fragaria viridis,Poligonum
alpinum ,Onobrychis sibirica,Carex pediformis, Centaurea
scabiosa,Plantago urvillei,Scorzonera purpurea,Adonis vernalis,Artemisia armeniaca,
Sesli libanotis , Aster alpinus, Dracocephalum thymiflorum, Hieracium echioides, Elytrigia lolioides , Phleum
phleoides ,Primula macroalyx,Polygala hybrida Phlomis tuberosa).

- 65,

,
29,1 /.
1993
-

.
68
.

Festuco Brometea.

:Stipa
ennata,Trgopogon
orientalis,Artemisia sericea, , 30,4
/.
1994 c

.
-
Artemisietalia vulgaris: Matricaria perforata.
Onopordetalia acanthii ( Verbascum phoeniceum, Potentilla erecta
,Echinops ritro,Lepidium ruderale,Sisymbrium officinale,Lactuca tatarica).
Festuco-Brometea.


Festuco-Brometea Stipa zlesskii ,S.tirsa,Caragana
frutex,Astragalus danicus,Galatella bif-
lora
, Onosma simpliscissima ,Eufphorbia semivillosa,Scorzonera
strict.

75, 31,0 /.
-
N 3.
-
()
-
.
.3
-

1 * 10. :
, N6.
4.2.4
- 1*10
N 9
.
-
,
(1990) ,
-
, 13
,
-
Secalitea

Chenopodietea (Avena fatua,Atriplex nitens, Sonchus asper,Cir-
sium setosum,Convolvulus arvensis, Galeopsis bifida).
9


( -
1 * 10)
-

.
90 91 92
93 94
Capsella
bursa-pastoris On
1 1 0 0 0
Berteroa
incana On
1 1 0 0 0
Atriplex
nitens Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Sonchus
asper Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Convolvulus
arvensis Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Cirsium
setosum Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Artemisia
vulgaris Art
1 1 0 0 0
Matricaria
perforata Art
1 1 0 0 0
Avena
fatua Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Lappula
squarrosa Art
1 1 0 0 0
Galeopsis
bifida Sec-ch
1 1 0 0 0
Achillea
millefolium MA
1 1 1 1 1
Taraxacum
officinale MA
1 1 1 1 1
Thymus
marschallianus FB
0 1 1 1 1
Poa
angustifolia FB
0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
valesiaca FB
0 1 1 1 1
Filipendula
vulgaris FB
0 1 1 1 1
Dianthus
versicolor FB
0 1 1 1 1
Trifolium
montanum FB
0 1 1 1 1
Medicago
romanica FB
0 1 1 1 1
Potentilla
impolita MA
0 1 1 1 1
Festuca
rupicola FB
0 0 1 1 1
Veronica
spicata FB
0 0 1 1 1
Achillea
nobilis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
pseudovina FB
0 0 1 1 1
Inula
britannica MA
0 0 1 1 1
Verbascum
phoniceum On
0 0 1 1 1
Helictotrichon
schelli-
anum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Agropyron
pectinatum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Echinops
ritro On
0 0 1 1 1
Lepidium
ruderale On
0 0 1 1 1
Eryngium
planum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Sisymbrium
officinale On
0 0 1 1 1
Pimpinella
saxifrage FB
0 0 1 1 1
Inula
hirta FB
0 0 1 1 1
Galium
verum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Galium
boreale MA
0 0 1 1 1
Veronica
paniculata MA
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
rubra MA
0 0 1 1 1
Rumex
thyrsiflorus FB
0 0 1 1 1
Asparagus
officinalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Trgopogon
orientalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Festuca
pratensis
0 0 1 1 1
Lactuca
tatarica On
0 0 1 1 1
Pastinaca
sativa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Fragaria
viridis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Polygonum
alpinum FB
0 0 1 1 1
Onobrychis
sibirica FB
0 0 1 1 1
Genista
tinctria MA
0 0 1 1 1
Medicago
falcata FB
0 0 1 1 1
Bromopsis
erecta FB
0 0 1 1 1
Carex
pediformis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Centaurea
scabiosa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Melampyrum
cristatum MA
0 0 1 1 1
Plantago
urvillei FB
0 0 1 1 1
Phlomis
tuberosa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Scorzonera
purpurea FB
0 0 1 1 1
Adonis
vernalis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Thalictrum
minus MA
0 0 1 1 1
Vicia
cracca MA
0 0 1 1 1
Artemisia
latifolia MA
0 0 1 1 1
Silaum
silaus MA
0 0 1 1 1
Lapulla
squarrosa Art
0 0 1 1 1
Thalictrum
simplex MA
0 0 1 1 1
Artemisia
armeniaca FB
0 0 1 1 1
Pedicularis
uralensis MA
0 0 1 1 1
Aster
alpinus FB
0 0 1 1 1
Seseli
libanotis FB
0 0 1 1 1
Dracocephalum
thymifl- FB
0 0 1 1 1
rum
Hieracium
echioides FB
0 0 1 1 1
Phleum
phleoides FB
0 0 1 1 1
Trifolium
lupinaster MA
0 0 1 1 1
Astragalus
danicus FB
0 0 1 1 1
Campanula
patula MA
0 0 1 1 1
Ranunculus
polyanthemos MA
0 0 1 1 1
Onosma
simpliscissima FB
0 0 1 1 1
Euphorbia
semivillosa FB
0 0 1 1 1
Caragana
frutex FB
0 0 0 1 1
Stipa
zalesskii FB
0 0 0 0 1
S.tirsa FB
0 0 0 0 1
S.pennata FB
0 0 0 0 1
S.capillata FB
0 0 0 0 1
Bromopsis
inermis FB
0 0 0 0 1
Elytrigia
lolioides FB
0 0 0 0 1
Artemisia
sericea FB
0 0 0 0 1
Scorzonera
stricta FB
0 0 0 0 1
Polygala
hybrida FB
0 0 0 0 1
Galatella
biflora FB
0 0 0 0 1
Pyrethrum
corymbosum FB
0 0 0 0 1

13 21 66
67 78
:
, N 6.

-
,
-

Molinio-Arrhe-
natheretea
(Achillea millefolium,Taraxacum officinale). -
- 7,4
/.
1991

.

-
- ,

8
.
Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Potentilla impolita)
-
-Festuco-Brometea (Thymus marschallianus, Dianthus versicolor,
Trifolium montanum,Medicago romanica,
Filipendula vulgaris, Poa
angustifolia,Festuca valesiaca).


Ar-
temisietalia
vulgaris (Artemisia vulgaris,Matricaria perforata,
Lppula squarrosa).
(1991)
. -
21, -
7,2 . 1992
-
(Capsella bursa-pastoris,Berteroa
incana,Atriplex nitens,
Sonchus asper,Convolvulus
arvenseis,Cirsium setosum, Artemisia
vulgaris, Matricaria perforata, Avena fatua,
Lappula squarrosa,
Galeopsis
bifida.).

Molinio-Arrhenatheretea(Inula
britannica,Festuca rubra,
Veronica paniculata,Festuca
pratensis,Melampyrum cristatum,Tha-
lictrum minus,Vicia cracca, Artemisia
latifolia, Silaum silaus,
Genista tinctria,Thalictrum
simplex,Pedicularis uralensis,Tri-
folium lupinaster,Campanula patula,Ranunculus
polyanthemos, Ga-
lium boreale) Festuco-brometea:Bromopsis
erecta,Festuca vale-
siaca, Poa angustifolia, Eryngium planum,
Pimpinella saxifraga,
Inula hirta,Rumex thyrsiforus, Asparagus
officinalis, Pstinaca
sativa,Medicago falcata,Festuca
rupicola,Festuca pseudovina,Ag-
ropyron
pectinatum,Helictotrichon schellianum,Polygala hybrida,
Veronica
spicata,Achillea nobilis, Plantago urvillei,Scorzonera purpurea,Adonis
vernalis, Aster alpinus,Dracocephalum thymiflorum,Hieracium echioides,Fragaria
viridis,Poligonum alpinum, Achillea nobilis,Onobrychis sibirica, Seseli
libanotis, Artemisia armeniaca,Galium verum,Trgopogon orientalis,Fragaria viridis, Polygonum alpinum,Onobrychis
sibirica,Carex pediformis, Centaurea scabiosa,Phlomis tuberosa,Phleum
phleoides,Astragalus danicus,Onosma simpliscissima,Euphorbia semivillosa).
-
66, -
,
33,7 /. 1993 .
67 .
Festuco-Brometea (Caragana frutex) .

48,2 /.
1994


. Festuco-Brometea.
Festuco-Brometea ( Stipa zlesskii, St.pennata, St.tirsa,Stipa
capillata , Bromopsis inermis , Elytrigia lolioides , Artemisia
sericea,Scorzonera stricta, Polygala hybrida,Galatella biflora, Pyrethrum
corymbosum ) . 78, 48,3 /.
4,
()
.
.4
-
1 *
10.
:
, N 6.
4.3 .
,
- ,..


-
, , - ,
- .
,

,
. ,..
""
-
, -
.  ,
,
.
,
,
.

10,-



.
,

.
10.

.

⠠ 1 * 5
Ƞ 頠
90 91
92 93 94 90 91
92 93 94
1.頠 /ࠠ 7,2 6,0
28,5 30,0 31,3 6,0 28,6 46,5 43,4
7,4
2.
. %% 46,6
35,3 60,3 80,0 85,0 40,
50,6 70,6 80,6 85,0 6
:
3.蠠 %% 15,0 5 4,6 12,3
12,4 5,3 13,3 17,6
18,0
8,3
4.堠 %% - 1,8 5,7
8,3 8,6 - 3,0 11,3
9,0 9,5
5.堠 %% 28,3 48,6 53,6 58,6 58,9
38, 48,3 52,0 60,0
62,0
3
6.
⠠ . 13,0
24,0 46,0 57,0 55,0 12,
23,0 44,0 66,0 73,0
0

:
7.蠠 . 1 2 3 7 7 1 2 8
10 10
8.堠 . 0 1 2 4 4 0 1 5 6 6
9.堠 . 12 21 41
16 44 11 20 31
50 57 10

⠠ 1 * 10
Ƞ 頠

90 91
92 93 94 90 91
92 93 94
1.頠 /㠠 29, 30, 31, 33, 48,
48,
ࠠ 7,4
7,1 1 4 0 7,4 7,2 7 2 3
2.
- %% 51, 50,
80, 90, 95,
51, 58, 71, 93,
95,
6 6 0 0 0 6 3 6 3 0
. :
3.蠠 %% 12, 14, 11, 11,
14, 21, 22,
7,8 2,8
7,6 0 0 3 0 3 3 0
4.堠 %% - -
10 16, 17,
1,8 3,6
3,3 5,1 1,8 3 1
5.堠 %% 25, 52,
68, 74, 75,
40, 45, 58, 61,
65,
3 6 6 6 0 3
6 3 6 0
6.
⠠ 13, 21,
65, 68, 75,
13, 21, 66, 67,
78,
. 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

:
7.蠠 1 3 6 9
9 1 4 10 10
10
.
8.堠 0 2 3 2
1 0 1 6 6
8
.
9.堠 12 16
56 56 65 12 16
51 51 60
.
.5.

.
:

.
.6


.
:
.
.7

.
:

.
.8

. :
.
.9

. :
.
.10

.
:
.
.11


. :
.
.12

.
: .
.13

.
:
. 5 -13
:, , .
,

, .
1 * 5 1 * 10
- 31,3;43,4/ 31,0 ;48,3 /
.
55,0-73,0;75 78.
5 -13

. ,

.

.
,
,
.

, -

.
.14
. :

.


. ,
-.

.

. N14 ,
,
-
50%,


, ,
(75%) 1*10.



.

.
, . ,
.
,

,
ꠠ 堠 , . . ""

- .
...
(1993)

.
( , )
. ,,

...
5.


.

-

.
.

.( ,, 1968 ;, 1975 ; ,,
1975 ; , , 1976, 1976, 1978,1980,1982 ; ,, 1986
;, 1988,1991 ;
.1995; ... 1994).

5.1 .

-



. (
, ,
).
11. ,
,
, ,
,


1:5
.

, .
,

( ,
),
:
,
.
, , - . ,
. (1992),
,
-
,

.
,.. -

-
.
, .

,


.
,

,
.

11

(/)


5 .
1990 1991 1992 1993
1994
9,3 9,2 27,7 29,2 29,2 20,9
1- .
1:5 7,2 6,0
28,5 30,0 31,3 20,6
2- .
1:5 7,4 6,0
28,6 46,5 43,4 26,3
1- .
1:10 7,4 7,1
29,1 30,4 31,0 21,0
2- .
1:10 7,4 7,2
33,7 48,2 48,3 28,9
Р 0,78
0,38 3,21 11,5 4,01 5.2.
.
,
3,

-

Festucion valestacae
Helictotricho stipetalia,


,
. -

.. (,.1995)

- . Festucion valesiecae.
1.
1-4 . ., ,-7 . 
頠 蠠 Tragopogono
orientalis-Stipetum
dasyphyllae Saitov 1989
Festucion valesiacae.
- 87
100 ..
80-90%, 40-50 .
Stipa pennata,
Stipa desyphilla, Stipa pulcherrima. 蠠 Trifolium
lupinaster, Trifolium montanum, Genista tinctoria.

. ,
,
(Betonica
officinalis, Anemone
sylvestris, Solidago
virgaurea, Hypericum elegans).
Calamagrostis epigeios, Poa
pratensis, Poa angustifolia, Phleum
phleoides).

- 堠
Rosa
cinnamomea, Rosa majalis, Chamaecythisus ruthenicus
Carex pediformis.
.
2. 2-5 .
., ,9 .

- Galio veri-Stipetum tirsae Saitov 1989
Festucion
valesiacae. 74 100
.. 80-85%, 45 .
Stipa pennata, Stipa tirsa, Stipa pulcherrima, Festuca pseudovina.
Calamagrostis epigeios, Phleum
phleoides, Bromopsis inermis, Poa angustifolia. Carex pediformis
젠 .
蠠 Rosa
majalis, Chamaecytisus ruthenicus.
Medicago falcata, Astragalus danicus, Onobrychis
sibirica, Genista tinctoria,
Trifolium
lupinaster. Fragaria viridis, Artemisia sericea, Adonis vernalis .
.
3. 3-3 .   ., ,3 .


- 蠠 Artemisio
latifolii-Helictotrichietum
schelliani Saitov 1993
Festucion valesiacae. 69 100
..
70-80%, 50 , .   堠
Festuca
pseudovina, Stipa
pennata, Stipa dasyphylla.
Koeleria cristata, Bromopsis inermis, Elytrigia repens, Phleum phleoides, Dactylis glomerata, Poa
angustifolia . Medicago
falcata, Vicia tenuifolia, Astragalus onobrychis, Genista tinctoria, Trifolium
lupinaster, Trifolium montanum.
Seseli libanotis, Phlomis tuberosa, Veronica spicata, Myosotis popovii.
.
4. 4-3 . Ѡ ., , 8 .
- -

Betonico officinalis-Stipetum pennatae Saitov 1989
Festucion valesiacae. 61
25
.. 75-80%, 40-45 ,
5%.   򠠠 Stipa
pennata, Poa angustifolia, Bromopsis inermis.
Festuca valesiaca, Stipa
capillata, Stipa tirsa,
Phleum phleoides, Carex
pediformis .
Caragana frutex, Rosa
cinnamomea, Chamaecytisus ruthenicus. Trifolium
montanum, Trifolium lupinaster, Astragalus danicus, Astragalus austriacus, Medicago
falcata, Onobrychis sibirica,
Genista tinctoria. 堠  Artemisia latifolia,
Artemisia
commutata, Seseli libanotis, Galium
verum, Filipendula vulgaris, Pulsatilla
patens, Achyrophorus maculatus, Hieracium virosum, Primula macrocalyx,
Fragaria viridis . .
5.
5-6 .   .,
,22 .

-
Alysso
turkestanici-Stipetum capillatae Saitov 1995
Festucion valesiacae.
66 100 ..
75%, - 45
,
5%.   Festuca
rupicola, Stipa pennata. Stipa capillata,
Bromopsis inermis,
Elytrigia repens, Poa
angustifolia .
Chamaecytisus ruthenicus,
Caragana frutex, Spiraea
crenata. 堠 Medicago falcata, Genista tinctoria, Astragalus
onobrychis, Trifolium montanum, Vicia
cracca, Onobrychis
sibirica. Aster
alpinus, Adonis vernalis, Fragaria viridis,
Seseli libanotis, Inula hirta, Campanula patula Scorzonera purpurea
.
.
6. 6-4 . ., ,9
.

-
Galio veri-Stipetum tirsae Saitov
1989 Festucion
valesiacae. 73
100 .. 80%,
- 40 , . Stipa pennata.
Festuca rupicola, Stipa
dasyphylla, Stipa
capillata, Stipa tirsa,
Bromopsis inermis, Poa angustifolia, Elytrigia repens, Poa
stepposa. Medicago falcata, Trifolium montanum, Vicia tenuifolia, Astragalus onobrychis.
. ⠠

Achillea millefolium,
Filipendula vulgaris, Aster
alpinus, Artemisia
campestris, Artemisia serocea,
Gypsophila altissima, Campanula
sibirica, Centarea scabiosa .
.
7. 7-5 . Ǡ ., ,8 .

- Betonico officinalis-Stipetum
pennatae Saitov 1989
Festucion valesiacae.
64
100 ..
70-80%,
- 45 , .  
Festuca
rupicola Stipa pennata.
Stipa
pulcherrima, Stipa
capillata, Bromopsis inermis,
Elytrigia repens, Poa angustifolia 蠠 . 蠠 Chamaecytisus
ruthenicus.
Medicago falcata, Genista tinctoria,
Astragalus onobrychis, Astragalus
danicus, Trifolium montanum,
Trifolium pratense, Oxytropis
pilosa, Vicia cracca, Onobrychis
sibirica.
Fragaria viridis, Aster
alpinus, Seseli libanotis, Inula hirta,
Scorzonera purpurea, Solidago virgaurea
. .
(
Helictotricho-Stipion)
8. 1-4 .
.I-, ,12 .


Stipetum
rubentis Toman 1969 Helictotricho-Stipion,
.
67 100 ..
75-80%, - 40-45
, 10%.
, Stipa
zalesskii. 堠 Helictotrichon
desertorum, Stipa capillata, Koeleria
cristata, Stipa
lessingiana, Festuca pseudovina,
Poa stepposa, Festuca
valesiaca. Carex
pediformis, Carex supina.

- Caragana frutex,
Spiraea crenata, Spiraea hypericifolia, Cotoneaster
melanocarpus.
Phlomis tuberosa,
Galium ruthenicum, Artemisia commutata, Hieracium
echioides, Potentilla
humifusa, Plantago urvillei.
.
9. 2-6 .   ., ,6 .
C 頠 蠠 Tanaceto millefolii-Helictrotrichetum desertorum Zhirnova et
Saitov 1995 Helictotricho-Stipion. 65 100
..
75%, -
30-40 ,
10-15%.
Helictotrichon desertorum, Stipa zalesskii. Stipa pennata, Stipa
capillata, Koeleria cristata,
Festuca pseudovina, Poa stepposa.
 ࠠ
Carex
pediformis. Spiraea
crenata, Caragana frutex.
Salvia stepposa, Achillea
nobilis, Artemisia latifolia, Artemisia armeniaca,
Galium ruthenicum, Potentilla
humifusa. C .


-

, " " Ԡ (Stipa
pennata,St.pulcherrima,St.sareptana,St.zalesskii,St.dasyphylla,
St.tirsa,St.lessingiana,Koeleria sclerophylla, Tulipa bieber-
steinii,Iris sibirica,Fritillaria ruthenica
.),

.

-
-
.
.




. -
,,
-


.

-


,
,
-
- -
.-
.
1. .
-
.
-
-

55 78 .
2.
.

3-5 28,5 - 48,3 /
.
3. ,
-
, -


,



1 * 5.
4.
-
,
-
-


蠠 -
Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
Festuco-Brometea.



-

-75,4 %.
5.
-
,
-

. -



. 6.

-

.
-


.
.

.., ..


//,1980 N 1..22-34.
..
// .,-.:,1964....300-447.
..,
..
// .:,.-,1986..59-61.

.., .. -

-
//.
,..,1983.N 6..46-62.

..
//.
. ,
1948..3.-535 .
..
... ,1954-296 .
..

// ,1975.N11.-.32-33.
..
//
..:1984..62-64.

.., ..
.

.//-.
,1986. N 11. .75-79.
..
-

//.,1979..64, N
12..1697-1714..
..
: , ,
// .. VII
Π . :,. -, 1983. . 310-311.

.., .. - ,
.//,1981. N.-.9-23.

.., .. (-
).//
. ,
1984..3-65.
.., ..

(- ).: 1992.110 .

.., ..

//

⠠ .
. , .-, 1977.-. 153-182.
..


//
../., 1977.-.153-182.

.. //

.: ,1988..63-68.

..,-- ..

.// , 1952..37, N 5..671-678.
..,
.. -
// . 1975. N3 .36-37.

.., .. -
.
// . . ,1976 .8. 92-95.
..,
.. //,1976.
N 2. 41.
.., ..
-
// . 1978. N2. .-18-20.
..,
.. .
-:,1980. -160 C.
..,
.. .-.:-
, 1982. 111 .
..
.// :
. .-.: ,
. 1993.- .100-110.
..

.:,1984. 190
.

.:.-
, 1987. 121.

..-
-
- ..:
,1979.199 .
..

-

.// III
..
., 1983. .53-59.
..

. ..
1986. 39 .

.. //, 1991. N 9. .59-63.
..
- //

//
30-
14-16
1994 ., 1994 .42-46.
..
.// ,
- , 1986. . 91,.2..122-131.
.., ..
//
,1994. N5. .393-401.

.. . .. 1966. 124 .
.., ..,
.., .. ,
. : - ,
1988. - 161 .
..
.-
.-: .-,1964.-210 .

.., ..
蠠 蠠
頠 .//.
., 1992 - N 14 - .136-148.
..
// .
.: ,1985. .113-123.
.., ..
. (
)// ..,1977. .62. N 5.
.654-663.

..,- ..
. ..:- ,1941. .1.- 176 C.
..
.//
..:1954.-.103-128.
..,
..
.//... .. . 1988..141-142.
..
.-.:,1980.-429
.
..
. //


..: -
, 1952..70-77.
..,..,.. 蠠
.2-堠 .,.
.-.:...1990.600 .
..
.:,1969 550 .
..
.......,1978.24
.
..
,

//...-, 1969..15,.3. .143-153.
..


//
.,1984. .
29-45.
..

//..,1986. .73, N 3. .391-400.
.., ..
-
.//.
.-.: ,1986.-.83-87.

., .., -
Ambrosia artemisiefolia 
 -
.//
-
.: , 1986. . 49-55.
.., ..
// ,1983..95, .2.
.304-318.
.. // , .
..:.1984. 5. 139-232.

.. 堠
.: , - 1985. 137 .
.., ., .,
.., . .// ,1985-. 155 .
.. ..: ,1986. 161 .
.., ., ..
. :, 1989.222
.
..
-.//
.., 1989.- N 9-.1-128.
.., ..
// ,1989. N 1. .7-17.
.., .., ..


.//
.. - , 1980. .27-53.
..
.//: .
,1965..264-282.
.., ..,
.. .// : , 1985. 117 .
..

.
//
(..) : ,1990.70 .

A.X. .//. , 1992.118
.
A.X.-
(- ) :
,
. /
, 1994. 33 .
..
-

.// .
...,1982..3,N 15..24-34.
..
-
.// .:
,1989..42-52.
.. :..//-:
. ..1995.238 .
. (
... ) .1987.120 .


. , .
. .. . 1994. 98 .
.., ..

// III
. : - ͠ ,
1972..28-29.
.., ..
.// VIII
, . . -
, 1973. .78-80.
..
.// . : , 1980. .53-75.
.., .., ..,
.. //
.
III.
.//
.." "
675-686. . .
1986.
.40.

.. .- , 1993. 371 . ⠠ ..
..:-
, 1987.160 .

.. ..:- , 1985.176 . ..
..:- , 1984.319 .

....:- , 1983.292 .
..
//
.,1976. .
46-62.
..

//
..:,1969. . 10-84.
..
.//
(. ). ,1986.-.101
..

//, 1987.N 3..26-30.
..
Polygono- Artemisietea
austriacae.//
. : .,1988.-.147-148.
..
. I.
(蠠 Festucetalia valesiacae,
Helictotricho-Stipetalia).//.:,1989 ,N 4150-89. .-29 .
..
. II. ( Galietatia veri,Onosmetalia,Polygono-Artemisietalia austriacae)// .: ,1989 ,N
4141-89..-27 .
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