Реферат: Mathematical Formulas for Calculation of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation G

How Many Physical Constants are Truly
Fundamental?

Dr. Nikolay Kosinov

Annotation

To main fundamental constants scientists usually refer gravitational constant (G), Planck constant (h) andspeed
of light (c). These constant are considered to be independent. Researches have shown, that truly
fundamental are not constants G, h, c, but quite other constants [1, 2, 3, 4]. They are the following constants:

1. Fundamental quantum of action h_{u} (h_{u}=7,69558071(63) • 10^{-37} J s).

2. Fundamental length l_{u} (l_{u}=2,817940285(31) • 10^{-15} m).

3. Fundamental quantum of time t_{u} (t_{u}=0,939963701(11) • 10^{-23} s).

4. Fine structure constant ( =7,297352533(27) • 10^{-3} )

5. Number ( =3,141592653589).

All major fundamental physical constants are composed and consist of these five constant. These five constant have special status and are
called "universalsuperconstants" [1, 2, 3, 4].

Are
the major physical constants fundamental?

To main fundamental constant scientists usually refer gravitational constant (G), Planck constant (h) and speed of
light (c). These constant are considered to be independent. These physical constants have special status among other constant. It is confirmed by
the fact, that in fundamental physics many scientists used the units system, in which these constants equal 1. They received a special importance after
M.Planck-s researches, who with the help of their combination discovered the units of mass, length and time, which were called "Planck units".

Constants G, h, c and their different combinations are used in most important physical theories. For example,
Newtonian theory of gravitation is G-theory [11]. General theory of relativity is a classic (G, c)-theory. Relative quantum theory of field
is quantum (h, c)-by theory [11]. Each of these theories operates by one or two dimensional constants. The discovery of Planck units v Planck length,
mass and time - gave a hope, that it is possible to create a new quantum theory on the base of three constants G, h, c. But attempts to create a single
quantum theory of electromagnetic fields, particles and gravitation on the base of three dimensional constants G, h, c were unsuccessful. This theory
has not existed yet, although scientists showed promises of it [11]. Why did it happen? The reason is, that constants G, h, c can not be a constant base
of quantum theory. In accordance with this fact a question arises, whether these constants can be considered primary and independent? Difficulties
in creation of G, h, c -theories object it. Obviously, other constant exist, which are both independent, and primary, and truly fundamental.
Evidently, all basic physical constants should come of such primary constants, including constants G, h, c. Since primary status of constants G, h,
c was out doubts for a long time, the task of search of ontological base of fundamental physical constant does not arise so sharp.

Failures in creation of (G, h, c)-theories and a big number of other fundamental physical constants, among which it is difficult to
prefer one of them, bring forward s task of search of ontological base of physical constants. Contemporary physics accumulated already about 300
fundamental constants [6]. 300 constants and all are fundamental! Why such a big number of constants are considered to be fundamental? If we refer
them to truly fundamental constants, it exists too much of them. If we accept a fact, that a single material essence makes a world base and all of physical
phenomena should have a single nature, then amount of constants must be lesser. Here we remember Ockham-s rule, according to which we should not
multiply a number of essences without necessity, and also Fresnel opinion, that L the nature is disposed to operate by great things with the help of the
little¦ [5, 8]. Therefore, if priority and independence of constants are criterions of true fundamentality, then just a little amount of constants
should be considered to be truly fundamental. That is why, a deep contradiction exists in fact, that hundreds of constants have fundamental status. Our task is
to find among them "truly fundamental constants" and reveal a number of them. Many facts indicate, that it is sufficient to have three
dimensional constants as truly fundamental. However only three basic units - metre, kilogramme and second v are enough to receive all units, having
mechanical nature. But unsuccessful attempts in creation of (G, h, c)-theories show, that three constants are not enough. It means, that we should search the
unknown number J_{F}, which comply with a number of still unknown truly fundamental constant, should be searched somewhere between 3 and 300:

3 < J_{F} <300.

Ockham-s principle shows, that we should search right answer of amount of truly fundamental constants nearby 3. The work has been
published [12], and its author comes to the conclusion, that it must be 22 fundamental constants (J_{F}=22).
Beneath it will be shown, that their number is much less. We have to find out, whether number J_{F} includes constants G, h, c. We
have to find out also, what dimensionless constants can be referred to truly fundamental constants.

Problem of fine structure constant ( )

Numerical values of dimensional physical constants depend on selected units system.
As it was marked above, by units system selection we can make constants G, h, c become equal 1. Besides that, there are the major dimensionless constants
in physics, such as, fine structure constant ( =
1/137,03599976(50)), proton-electron mass ratio (m_{p}/m_{e}= 1836,1526675(39)) etc. Their values are
invariant according to unit-s system selection. The scientists know very little about these constants [11, 13, 14]. Perhaps the only achievement is, that their
values are known very exact. Especially enigmatic is fine structure constant ( ).

Constant ( ) was used in physics by Sommerfeld in 1916, when the theory of fine structure of atom
energy was created. Primary fine structure constant ( ) was
definite as ratio of electron speed on lower Bohr orbit to speed of light. With the development of quantum theory it become sure, that such
simplified conception does not reveal its true sense. The origin nature of this constant and its physical sense has not been discovered yet. Besides fine structure
of atom energy, this constant appears in following combination of fundamental physical constants: . Interesting expression about number (?) belongs to Feinmann [10]: "since it was discovered... it was a riddle. All of tempted
physicists-theorists this number brought to deadlock and was followed with anxiety. You wanted to know, how this tie constant appeared: whether it is
connected with number π or related to natural logarithm. Noone knows". About the value of fine structure constant the
authors of аЕПЙКЕЕБЯЙНЦН physics course write [9]: "we have no theory, which foretold a value of this constant".

In the same time, such invariance of fine structure constant ( ) to unit-s system selection allows to call it the first aspirant after role of
truly fundamental constant. Physicists are sure, that fine structure constant ( ) contains something important about structure of microcosm and macrocosm.

Five
universal superconstants

As my researches of fundamental physical constants showed [1, 2, 3, 4], that dimensional constants G, h, c are
not independent. None of them is primary. It was very unexpected to find out, that gravitational constant (G) is compound [1, 2, 3, 4]. More then
that, it was discovered, that gravitational constant (G) includes both Planck constant (h), and speed of light (c) [1, 3, 4]. This is
the reason, why constants (G, h, c) can not be a constant base for quantum theory. Therefore it is not strange, that attempts of creation of (G,
h, c)-theories are unsuccessful. Interdependent, unprimary, and nonfundamental constants can not be a constant base for fundamental physical
theory.

Researches have shown, that truly fundamental are not constants G, h, c, but quite other constants [1, 2, 3, 4]. They are the
following constants:

1. Fundamental quantum of action h_{u} (h_{u}=7,69558071(63) • 10^{-37} J s).

2. Fundamental length l_{u} (l_{u}=2,817940285(31) • 10^{-15} m).

3. Fundamental quantum of time t_{u} (t_{u}=0,939963701(11) • 10^{-23} s).

4. Fine structure constant ( =7,297352533(27) • 10^{-3} )

5. Number ( =3,141592653589).

They were called universal superconstants, which emphasizes their fundamentality [1]. All physical constants are expressed, using five
superconstants h_{u}, l_{u}, t_{u}, , . Table 1 shows some functional dependences for major fundamental physical
constants [1, 2, 3, 4]:

TAB. 1.

Quantity

Symbol

Functional dependence

Constant of gravitation

G

G=f(h_{u},l_{u},t_{u}, , )

Speed of light

c

c= f(l_{u},t_{u})

Planck constant

H

h= f(h_{u}, , )

Elementary charge

Е

e=f(h_{u},l_{u},t_{u})

Electron mass

m_{e}

m_{e}=f(h_{u},l_{u},t_{u})

Rydberg constant

=f(l_{u}, , )

Proton-electron mass ratio

m_{p}/m_{e}

m_{p}/m_{e}=f( , )

Hubble constant

H_{0}

H_{0} =f(t_{u}, , )

Planck mass

m_{pl}

m_{pl}=f(h_{u},l_{u},t_{u}, , )

Planck length

l_{pl}

l_{pl}=f(l_{u}, , )

Planck time

t_{pl}

t_{pl}=f(t_{u}, , )

Magnetic flux quantum

=f(h_{u},l_{u},t_{u}, , )

Bohr magneton

= f(h_{u},l_{u},t_{u}, )

Researches have shown, that in base of practically all major physical constants these five universal superconstants
lie. So, known today family of physical constant assumes reduction to primary superconstant base, because it originates from this primary (h_{u}, l_{u},
t_{u}, , )- basis:

As far as magnetic and electric constants do not have physical sense and their
introduction is conditioned by only unit-s system selection, physical and astrophysical constants assume reduction to five primary superconstants.
Primary, ontological status of universal superconstants allows referring superconstants to separate class of fundamental physical constants. To my mind,
we should include to list of fundamental physical constant a new paragraph: "Universal superconstants":

Universal superconstants

Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

1

Fundamental quantum

h_{u}

7,69558071(63) • 10^{-37}

J s

2

Fundamental length

l_{u}

2,817940285(31) • 10^{-15}

m

3

Fundamental time

t_{u}

0,939963701(11) • 10^{-23}

s

4

Fine structure constant

7,297352533(27) • 10^{-3}

5

Pi

3,141592653589...

Emphasizing of special paragraph "Universal superconstants" can be substantiating by following considerations. Five
superconstants, included in superconstant basis, are primary constants. All other fundamental physical constants are compound constants and have secondary
status. They can be deduced on the base of primary superconstants h_{u}, l_{u}, t_{u}, , . We can deduce by analytic computation practically all major fundamental physical
constants, using five superconstants. The author has received proper mathematical correlations for calculation of fundamental physical constant
values, using superconstants [1, 2, 3, 4]. To my mind, these five universal superconstants can substitute a big list of electromagnetic,
universal, atomic and nuclear constants and become a base of new physical theories of field, elementary particles and gravitation. More detailed
information of superconstants you can find on sites:

Ontological
status of superconstants h_{u}, l_{u}, t_{u}, ,

Five superconstants (h_{u}, l_{u}, t_{u}, , ) are ontological basis of physical constants. It means, that physical constants
originate from five superconstants. All of five superconstants are independent. It is impossible to get dimensionless superconstants, using dimensional
superconstants. It is impossible to get dimensional superconstants, using dimensionless superconstants

The principles of superconstant sufficiency for physical constant are formulated in [1, 2]. The first principle of superconstant
sufficiency is: "In the base of dimensional fundamental physical constants lie the constants of universal superconstants h_{u}, l_{u},
t_{u}, , group". It is an equivalent formulation: "Values of dimensional fundamental
physical constant can be received by calculation, using universal superconstants h_{u}, l_{u}, t_{u}, , ".

The second principle of superconstant sufficiency is: "In the base of all dimensionless fundamental physical constants lie two
superconstants and ". It is an equivalent formulation: "All dimensionless fundamental
physical constants can be received by calculation, using two superconstants and ".

So, five superconstants h_{u}, l_{u}, t_{u}, , are truly fundamental. They have ontological status. The conclusion is, that it was no
reason to call other physical constants fundamental

Literature

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Constants and Formulas // PhysicalVacuum and Nature. v 2000. -N4. - Я. 96 - 102.

4. Kosinov N. V., Kosinova Z. N. GENERAL CORRELATION AMONG FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS // Journal of New Energy. v 2000. - Vol. 5. v ¦ 1. v Pp. 134 -135.

6. Peter J., Taylor M. N., Taylor B. N. CODATA Recommended Values of the FundamentalPhysicalConstants:
1998 // Reviews of Modern Physihs. v 2000. - Vol72. - No. 2. - www.physics.nist.gov/constants
(Constants in the category "All constants")

10. Carter J. The Other Theory of Physics. - Washington, 1994.

12. John Baez. How Many Fundamental Constants Are There? - http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/constants.html

13. Johnson G. 10 Physics Questions to Ponder for a Millennium or Two // New York
Times. v 2000. - Aug. 15

14. Gross D. Millennium Madness: Physics Problems for the Next Millenium. - Strings
2000 conference at University of Michigan. v 2000. - July 10-15