(
       )
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
      
  
  
      
  
  
      
      
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
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Π
Π Ƞ Π ߠ
Π - ɠ ɠ
ɠ

Π
ߠ

: Š
۠




Ҡ III


ܠ 2401 ____________

= . .
=

: = . .
  =
.
1998 .
1. Š .3
2.
ߠ .4.
3.
.
.5
3.1
.6
3.2 Ѡ ߠ .6
3.3
ߠ .6
3.4
.7
3.5 Š . .7
3.6
. .8
3.7 Š ɠ .
.9
4. ɠ . .10
4.1
- .
.10
4.2
.
. 12
4.3
(N) ,
(Z) .
.13
4.4


.
.17
5. .
.18
6. .
.19
1.
.

.
, ,
.


.


,
.
,


.


,
.


, ,
, ,
.
( )
.
2.
.

,
,
. -
, ,
- .
.

-164 .
1. . . . . .. . 90 6 . . 5400 8,.2 0,95
3.
.


, .
,
.
:
e = 8,2 . -93 (
= 81¸90
) . .
= 0,855 , = 0,145 ,
- ; - ; - . 1. ,
, , ,
: ++ = 1 .
A :

.
,
,
.
,
. , 0,23% , 0,208% ,
1 :
.
.

, 1 . a=0,9 : alo = 0.9*14.957 = 13.461 ; aLo
= 0,9 * 0,516 = 0,464 . m
= 115 ,
:
1 = 1/ m
+ aLo = 1/115+0,464 =
0,473 .
( a<1
) () ,
(2) , (2) , (2)
, (N2)
. =0,47 (
, ).:
= 2*0,21*[(1-a)/(1+K)]*Lo = 0,42*(0,1/1,47)*0,516 = 0,0147 .
2 = /12-
= 0,855/12-0,0147 = 0,0565 .
2 = * =
0,47*0,0147 = 0,00692 .
2 = /2 - 2 =
0,145/2-0,00692 = 0,06558 .
N2
= 0,792*aLo =
0,792*0,9*0,516 = 0,368 .

:
2 = 0,0147+0,0565+0,00692+0,06558+0,368 =
0,5117 .
: 2 =
/12+/2+0,792*aLo =
0,855/12+0,145/2+0,792*0,9*0,516 = 0,5117 .

: Pk=Po=0.1 ()
Tk=To=
293 () , D = 20 . : r = 1030o
.
: PrN = 1.16*Po
= 1,16*0,1 = 0,116
() .
,
rN -
, nN -
5400 /. :
r=0×( 1,035+ ×10-8
×n2)= 0,1×(1,035+0,42867×10-8×54002) = 0,1×(1,035+0,125)=0,116 ()
3.1
.

D

DN =10 .
:
D = ×
(110-0,0125×n) = 0,23533×(110-0,0125×5400)=
10 .

: ,
0 =0,1 () ; 0
= 293 () ; - 287 (./*.) Þ
r0 = ( 0,1*106)/(287*293)
= 1,189 (/3).

D
,
( (b2+x)=
3,5 , b
-
, x
- ) ,
D = (b2+x)*
n2*n2*(rk /2*10-6) , n = w/ nN , w -
(w = 95 /) ,
n= 95/5400 = 0,0176 . : rk = r0 =
1,189 ( /3) .Þ D
= (3,5×
0,1762×54002×1,189×10-6)/2
= (3,5×0,0003094×29160000×1,189×10-6)
= 0,0107 ().

: = 0 - D = 0,1-
0,0107 = 0,0893 ().
:
, =293
; D
= 10 ; r
= 0,116 () ; r = 1000 K ;
Pa= 0.0893 ();e =
8,2 , : gr = (293+10)/1000*0,116/(8,2*0,0893-0,116)
=0,057.
: ().
3.2
.


n=
1,37 . :
= ×en = 0.0893× 8.21.37 = 1,595 ().
: = ×e(n-1) = 340,6×8,20,37
= 741,918@
742 ().

( ): mcv =
20,16+1,74×10-3×
= 20,16+1,74×10-3×742
= 21,45 (/×.)
: r = a×gr×L0 = 0,95×0,057×0,516=0,0279
().

: = 1+r = 0,473+0,0279= 0,5()
3.3
.


( a<1) : mc⒒ = (18,4+2,6×a)+(15,5+13,8×a)×10-4×z= 20,87+28,61×10-4×z =
20,87+0,00286×z (/×).

: z = M2+Mr = 0,5117+0,0279
= 0,5396 () .
: b = z / Mc = 0,5397/0,5
= 1,08 .

xz = 0,8 ,
, lz
1 . : Q = xz×(Hu-DQH) , Hu -
42700 (/)., DQH =119950×(1-a)×
L0 -
, :
DQH = 119950×(1-0,95)
×0,516
= 3095 (/) , Q = 0,8×(42700-3095) =31684
(/).
(a<1) :
, :
1,08(20,87+0,00286*z)*Tz
= 36636/(0,95*0,516*(1+0,057))+21,45*742
22,4z +0,003z2 = 86622
Þ 22,4 z +0,003 z2 - 86622 = 0

: z = Pc*b*Tz /Tc = 1,595*1,08*2810/742
= 6,524 () .
: z =
0,85*z =
0,85*6,524 =5,545 () . : l = z / = 6,524/1,595 =
4,09
3.4
.


n2 = 1,25

:
6,524/13,876=0,4701().2810/1,7=1653

:
1653/ 1,6 = 1037 .
:
D= 100*(1037-1030)/1030 =
0,68% , D< 1,7 .
3.5
.

:
=1,163
() .
j = 0,96 ,
: i = 0,96* i
= 0,96*1,163 = 1,116 () .
... : hi = pi l0 a / (QH
r0 hv ) = (1,116 *14,957*0,9)/(42,7*1,189*0,763) =
0,388 , Q =
42,7 /.

: gi =
3600/ (QH hi ) = 3600/(42,7*0,388) =217
/ .
3.6 .

m = 15 /. , S= 75 .
n=5400 /. ,
: = +* m , S/D =0,75<1
, =0,0395 , = 0,0113 , = 0,0395+0,0113*15 =0,209
.

:
= i - p
= 1,116-0,209= 0,907 .
... : h = / i = 0,907/
1,116 = 0 ,812
...
:
h= hi h
= 0,388*0,812 = 0,315 ; ge = 3600/(QH h) = 3600/(42,7*0,315) = 268 /

.
1. :
V = 30×t N / ( n) = 30*4*90/(0,907*5400) = 2,205 .
2.
: Vh = V
/ i = 2,205 / 6 =
0,368 .
3. :
D = 2×103×Ö
Vh(pS) = 2*10^3*(0,368/(3,14*75))^(0,5)= 2*103*0,0395
= 79,05 .@
80 .
4.
S = 75 . D = 80.
: V
= pD2Si / (4*106) =
(3,14*6400*75*6)/(4000000)= 2,26 .
5. : F = pD2 / 4 = 20096/4 = 5024 2
= 50,24 (2).
6.
: N
= V n / 30t =
(0,907*2,26*5400)/(30*4) = 92,24 (.).
7.
: = (3*104 / p)(Ne /n) = (30000/3,14)*(92,24/5400) = 163,2
(×)
8.
: G
= Ne ×ge ×10-3 = 92,24×268×10-3
= 92,24*268*10^(-3)=24,72
.
9.
: Nn = 4× Ne /i×p×D2 = (4*92,24)/(6*3,14*80*80)
=30,6
3.7
.

, .. Ne=92,24 . n=5400 /.
:
1 . ; 0,05 .

:
= S/Ms = 75/1,0 =75 . ; =
/ (e-1)
= 75/(8,2-1) = 10,4 .

Z : z / Mp = 6,524/0,05 = 130,48 .
:
/ = 0,0893/0,05 = 1,786 . ; / =
1,595/0,05 = 31,9 . ; / =
0,4701/0,05 = 9,402 . : r / = 0,116/0,05 = 2,32 . ; 0 / =
0,1/0,05 = 2 .

:
1. :
= (V
V )n1 . /
= (/)(/)n1 . , = += 75+10,4 =
85,4 . ; n1 = 1,377
.
2. :

3. .:
/ =
(V /V)n2 , / = (/)(/)n2 , = 85,4 ; n2 =1.25
.1. .
4.
.

- .
Sn = (R+a)- ( R cos.a+acos.b)= R[(1+1/l)-( cos.b+1/l cos.b)] , l
=R / a , Sn = R[(1+ l/4)-( cos.a+ l/4 cos.2a)] , a=180
Sn=S -
, : 75 = R[(1+l/4)-(-1+l/4)] ; 75 = R[1.0625+0.9375] ; 75 = 2R
Þ
R = 75/2 = 37.5 .=0,0375 .
l=R/L
Þ L = R/l=
37,5/0,25 = 150 .=15 . .. l=
0,25

:
V = dSn/dt = Rw( sina + l/2sin2a) ,
jn = d2Sn/dt = Rw2(cosa + lcos2a) ,

: w = pn/30 = 3,14*5400/30 = 565,2
/ .
4.. :
1- ( sina + l/2sin2a) ; 2- (cosa + lcos2a)

5.
5.
.(/) a 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 V 0 12,89 20,65 21,2 16,06 8,31 0 -8,31 -16,06 -21,2 -20,65 -12,89 a 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600 630 660 690 V 0 12,89 20,65 21,2 16,06 8,31 0 -8,31 -16,06 -21,2 -20,65 -12,89
6.
. a 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 j 14974 11872 4492 -2995 -7487 -8877 -8985 -8877 -7487 -2995 4492 11872 a 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600 630 660 690 j 14974 11872 4492 -2995 -7487 -8877 -8985 -8877 -7487 -2995 4492 11872
.2
.
. 3
.
4.2
.
1
: 1= Rl/2
= 0,25*3,75/2 = 0,47 (). :
= mj w2 R(1+l) = 0,5 z = 0,5*6,524 = 3,262 () ;
= 3,262/0,05 = 65,24 .

:


BD EF :
BD = - mj w2 R(1-l) = -
0,000218*319451*0,0375*(1-0,25) = -1,959 () .
EF = -3 mj w2 Rl =
-3*0,000218*319451*0,0375*0,25 = -1,959 ( ). Þ
BD= EF
.4
.

: j = - mj w2 R(cosa + lcos2a)
7. . a 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 j -3,25 -2.58 -0,98 0,65 1,625 1,927 1,95 1,927 1,625 0,65 -0,98 -2,58 a 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600 630 660 690 Pj -3,25 -2,58 -0,98 0,65 1,625 1,927 1,95 1,927 1,625 0,65 -0,98 -2,58
,
:
, 0
= 0,1 , = r +Pj - P0 , r - ,
.
8.
, :
N= *tgb
;
Z =
* cos(a+b)/cosb
; T = * sin(a+b)/cosb
8. .


N
(.5) , (.6) , (.7)
.
.5 N
.
6.
.
.7.

4.4

.

,
, , ,
. 10


.

: å = å (å
i) F R , F - : F = 0,005 2
, ; R= 0,0375 . -
.
: 1-4-2-6-3-5 .

: =98100*
F R
. 8.
.

: . = ( max + Mmin)/2
. =
(609,94+162,2)/2 = 386 × .
5. .


,
.

, ,
, ,

.


.
6. .
1. . . . .
. .: , 1980.;
2. . . .
. .: , 1967.;
3. . .
:
. , 1997..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2011